Inverter Chargers

What is the difference between battery de-sulfation and battery equalization ?

Battery Desulfation

Desulfation uses frequency pulse conditioning technology to break up and dislodge sulfation or more importantly to prevent it from building if used continuously. Before a battery chargers go into start phase of charging, they pulse in a charge, and remove the power quickly. This “pulse” style technology literally forces the rapid breakdown and removal of sulfation (sulfur crystals) from the electrolyte solution in the battery. A prolonged desulphation cycle may be necessary if crystals have formed on the lead grid plates. The desulphation process is a preliminary charging process given to the battery so it has the ability to receive its charge faster and more efficiently. This would technically be the first phase in a charge cycle. However, many battery chargers do not have this cycle. Desulfation can be both positive and negative voltages, varying explicitly by manufacturer.

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Battery Equalization

Equalization is a deliberate overcharge intended to accomplish the same thing by raising the voltage and gassing the electrolyte. The “Equalize” regimen is run to remove deep sulphation from a battery, or to deep charge flooded batteries. A prolonged desulphation cycle may be necessary if crystals have formed on the lead grid plates, and as such, most equalize cycles are in excess of 12 hours. The equalization process is also a complete charging process so when your batteries make it through, they are ready to go. You don’t have to charge them again. *AGM batteries and GEL batteries don’t need or like this type of charge as it boils off Electrolyte, which shortens their lifespan. However, if an AGM battery is left alone too long in a shed, and would be dead anyway, an equalize charge may “SAVE” it for a while. Equalization voltages are usually 15.3 – 15.9 volts for a 12 volt battery bank.

How fast will Sigineer inverter charger respond to a power outage?

The Sigineer Power inverter charger is designed with very efficient transfer switch.
10 milisecond transferIn Standby Mode, the AC input is continually monitored. Whenever AC power falls below the VAC Trip voltage or there is a power outage, the inverter automatically transfers back to the Invert Mode with minimum interruption to your appliances. The transfer from Standby mode to Inverter mode occurs in approximately 6 milliseconds. In the worst case, 10 milliseconds. And it is roughly the same time from Inverter mode to Standby mode.
Though it is not designed as a computer UPS system, this transfer time is usually fast enough to hold them up.
There is a 15-second delay from the time the inverter senses that continuously qualified AC is present at the input terminals to when the transfer is made. This delay is built in to provide time for a generator to spin-up to a stable voltage and avoid relay chattering. The inverter will not transfer to generator until it has locked onto the generator’s output. This delay is also designed to avoid frequent switch when input utility is unstable.

DC to AC Power Inverters

What size of inverter do I need?

An inverter needs to meet two needs –  surge power, and the rated power.
Surge is the maximum power that the inverter can supply, usually for only a short time (usually no longer than a second unless specified in the inverter’s specifications). Some appliances, particularly those with electric motors, need a much higher start up surge than they do when running. Pumps, compressors, air conditioners are the most common example-another common one is freezers and refrigerators (compressors). You want to select an inverter with a continuous rating that will handle the surge rating of your appliance so you don’t prematurely burn out the inverter. Don’t rely on the inverters surge to start your equipment because inverters don’t like to operate in their surge mode unless the manufacturer claims to have a longer surge time than normal.
Rated power is what the inverter has to supply on a steady basis. This is the continuous rating. This is usually much lower than the surge. For example, this would be what a refrigerator pulls after the first few seconds it takes for the motor to start up, or what it takes to run the microwave – or what all loads combined will total up to. (see our note about appliance power and/or name tag ratings at the end of this section).
You can use the following formula to determine the size:

Volts * Amps = watts  or  Watts / Volts = amps

Solar charger controllers

PWM vs MPPT Solar Charge Controllers

The two types of charge controllers most commonly used in today’s solar power systems are pulse width modulation (PWM) and maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Both adjust charging rates depending on the battery’s charge level to allow charging closer to the battery’s maximum capacity as well as monitor battery temperature to prevent overheating.

PWM Type Solar Controllers MPPT Solar Controllers
PROS
– PWM controllers are built on a time tested technology. They have been used for years in Solar systems, and are well established- These controllers are inexpensive, usually selling for less than $350- PWM controllers are available in sizes up to 60 Amps- PWM controllers are durable, most with passive heat sink style cooling- These controllers are available in many sizes for a variety of applications – MPPT controllers offer a potential increase in charging efficiency up to 30%- These controllers also offer the potential ability to have an array with higher input voltage than the battery bank- You can get sizes up to 80 Amps- MPPT controller warranties are typically longer than PWM units – MPPT offer great flexibility for system growth- MPPT is the only way to regulate grid connect modules for battery charging
CONS
– The Solar input nominal voltage must match the battery bank nominal voltage if you’re going to use PWM- There is no single controller sized over 60 amps DC as of yet – Many smaller PWM controller units are not UL listed- Many smaller PWM controller units come without fittings for conduit – PWM controllers have limited capacity for system growth- Can’t be used on higher voltage grid connect modules – MPPT controllers are more expensive, sometimes costing twice as much as a PWM controller- MPPT units are generally larger in physical size- Sizing an appropriate Solar array can be challenging without MPPT controller manufacturer guides- Using an MPPT controller forces the Solar array to be comprised of like photovoltaic modules in like strings
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